Clinical data on developmental nicotine exposure frequently refers to hyperactivity and attention deficits, effects that are found in the preclinical literature as well. Schneider et al (2011) found that rats exposed to nicotine during gestation performed more poorly in the 5-choice serial reaction time task in measures of sustained attention and impulsivity (Schneider et al, 2011). These data correspond to the clinical literature, specifically as attention deficits have been correlated to second trimester exposure (Cornelius et al, 2007). A similar exposure regimen in mice found that males and females exposed to nicotine were significantly more hyperactive than controls, especially during the dark (awake) cycle (Zhu et al, 2012). Moreover, nicotine-exposed mice responded to methylphenidate (MPH), a pharmacological treatment for ADHD, with attenuated locomotor activity. This low oral dose of MPH had no effect on control mice, just as humans without ADHD do not respond to MPH. Perhaps even more amazingly, the authors then demonstrated that the prenatal nicotine-induced hyperactivity can propagate transgenerationally via the maternal line of descent (Zhu et al, 2014). These data suggest that in utero exposure to substances even in previous generations may have a role in the increased incidence of neurodevelopmental disorders in modern society.
The purpose of this study is to explore the impact of entrepreneurial leadership on entrepreneurial performance in start-ups. Specifically, a moderated serial mediation model was developed to investigate the mediating role of tacit knowledge sharing and job embeddedness and the moderating effect of career growth opportunities. Data was collected from 376 start-up employees via an online survey platform. Using hierarchical multiple regression and Hayes' PROCESS Macro by SPSS 21.0, and structural equation modeling by AMOS 23.0, support was found for both mediation and moderation effects. Results showed that entrepreneurial leadership significantly positively affects entrepreneurial performance by mediating with tacit knowledge sharing and job embeddedness. Moreover, career growth opportunities moderate the serial mediating effect of tacit knowledge sharing and job embeddedness between entrepreneurial leadership and entrepreneurial performance. This study provides theoretical guidance for entrepreneurial leadership to improve entrepreneurial performance. 153554b96e